BERITA DRN TERKINI

Peningkatan Peran Riset dan Inovasi untuk Solusi Bisnis Menanggulangi Kemiskinan dalam Rangka Penguatan Daerah dan Desa

9 Agustus 2016

 

STRUKTUR PENYAJIAN

        • PENDAHULUAN : WASPADA SOSIAL
        • PENDEKATAN SOLUSI BISNIS MENANGGULANG KEMISKINAN
        • SINERGI DESA MEMBANGUN DAERAH DAN DAERAH MEBANGUN KAWASAN PERDESAAN

        • PENUTUP

Baca Selengkapnya

 
 
 

PENGEMBANGAN LUMBUNG PANGAN DI MERAUKE DALAM PERSPEKTIF PERTANIAN EKOREGIONAL

25 Mei 2016

 

TARGET SWA SEMBADA PANGAN

•3 th, swasembada padi, jagung, dan kedelai; peningkatan ekspor dan pengurangan impor komoditas lainnya
•5 th, swasembadapadi, jagung, dankedelaisertapeningkatanproduksigula dan daging, peningkatan ekspor dan pengurangan impor komoditas lainnya
 
Kegiatan Operasional Menuju Swasembada Pangan 2015-2019
1. Kualitas Pangan
2. Dampak Perubahan Iklim
3. Infrastruktur

 

 
 

Oleh Drs. Iskandar, Apt,MM 

( Anggota Komisi Teknis Teknologi Kesehatan & Obat DRN 2012-2014 dan Direktur Utama PT. Bio Farma (Persero) )

ABSTRAK

Rumus umum yang kita kenal dalam pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (iptek) yaitu riset dasar dilakukan oleh akademisi dan lembaga-lembaga riset, kemudian hasilnya mengalir ke industri, untuk diwujudkan menjadi produk yang mempunyai nilai lebih untuk kesejahteraan rakyat. 

The Discipline of Innovation

From the August 2002 Issue

 

How much of innovation is inspiration, and how much is hard work? If it’s mainly the former, then management’s role is limited: Hire the right people, and get out of their way. If it’s largely the latter, management must play a more vigorous role: Establish the right roles and processes, set clear goals and relevant measures, and review progress at every step. Peter Drucker, with the masterly subtlety that is his trademark, comes down somewhere in the middle. Yes, he writes in this article, innovation is real work, and it can and should be managed like any other corporate function. But that doesn’t mean it’s the same as other business activities. Indeed, innovation is the work of knowing rather than doing.

Drucker argues that most innovative business ideas come from methodically analyzing seven areas of opportunity, some of which lie within particular companies or industries and some of which lie in broader social or demographic trends. Astute managers will ensure that their organizations maintain a clear focus on all seven. But analysis will take you only so far. Once you’ve identified an attractive opportunity, you still need a leap of imagination to arrive at the right response—call it “functional inspiration.”

Despite much discussion these days of the “entrepreneurial personality,” few of the entrepreneurs with whom I have worked during the past 30 years had such personalities. But I have known many people—salespeople, surgeons, journalists, scholars, even musicians—who did have them without being the least bit entrepreneurial. What all the successful entrepreneurs I have met have in common is not a certain kind of personality but a commitment to the systematic practice of innovation.

Innovation is the specific function of entrepreneurship, whether in an existing business, a public service institution, or a new venture started by a lone individual in the family kitchen. It is the means by which the entrepreneur either creates new wealth-producing resources or endows existing resources with enhanced potential for creating wealth.

Today, much confusion exists about the proper definition of entrepreneurship. Some observers use the term to refer to all small businesses; others, to all new businesses. In practice, however, a great many well-established businesses engage in highly successful entrepreneurship. The term, then, refers not to an enterprise’s size or age but to a certain kind of activity. At the heart of that activity is innovation: the effort to create purposeful, focused change in an enterprise’s economic or social potential.

Sources of Innovation

There are, of course, innovations that spring from a flash of genius. Most innovations, however, especially the successful ones, result from a conscious, purposeful search for innovation opportunities, which are found only in a few situations. Four such areas of opportunity exist within a company or industry: unexpected occurrences, incongruities, process needs, and industry and market changes.

Three additional sources of opportunity exist outside a company in its social and intellectual environment: demographic changes, changes in perception, and new knowledge.

True, these sources overlap, different as they may be in the nature of their risk, difficulty, and complexity, and the potential for innovation may well lie in more than one area at a time. But together, they account for the great majority of all innovation opportunities.

1. Unexpected Occurrences

Consider, first, the easiest and simplest source of innovation opportunity: the unexpected. In the early 1930s, IBM developed the first modern accounting machine, which was designed for banks. But banks in 1933 did not buy new equipment. What saved the company—according to a story that Thomas Watson, Sr., the company’s founder and long-term CEO, often told—was its exploitation of an unexpected success: The New York Public Library wanted to buy a machine. Unlike the banks, libraries in those early New Deal days had money, and Watson sold more than a hundred of his otherwise unsalable machines to libraries.

Fifteen years later, when everyone believed that computers were designed for advanced scientific work, business unexpectedly showed an interest in a machine that could do payroll. Univac, which had the most advanced machine, spurned business applications. But IBM immediately realized it faced a possible unexpected success, redesigned what was basically Univac’s machine for such mundane applications as payroll, and within five years became a leader in the computer industry, a position it has maintained to this day.

The unexpected failure may be an equally important source of innovation opportunities. Everyone knows about the Ford Edsel as the biggest new-car failure in automotive history. What very few people seem to know, however, is that the Edsel’s failure was the foundation for much of the company’s later success. Ford planned the Edsel, the most carefully designed car to that point in American automotive history, to give the company a full product line with which to compete with General Motors. When it bombed, despite all the planning, market research, and design that had gone into it, Ford realized that something was happening in the automobile market that ran counter to the basic assumptions on which GM and everyone else had been designing and marketing cars. No longer was the market segmented primarily by income groups; the new principle of segmentation was what we now call “lifestyles.” Ford’s response was the Mustang, a car that gave the company a distinct personality and reestablished it as an industry leader.

Unexpected successes and failures are such productive sources of innovation opportunities because most businesses dismiss them, disregard them, and even resent them. The German scientist who around 1905 synthesized novocaine, the first nonaddictive narcotic, had intended it to be used in major surgical procedures like amputation. Surgeons, however, preferred total anesthesia for such procedures; they still do. Instead, novocaine found a ready appeal among dentists. Its inventor spent the remaining years of his life traveling from dental school to dental school making speeches that forbade dentists from “misusing” his noble invention in applications for which he had not intended it.

This is a caricature, to be sure, but it illustrates the attitude managers often take to the unexpected: “It should not have happened.” Corporate reporting systems further ingrain this reaction, for they draw attention away from unanticipated possibilities. The typical monthly or quarterly report has on its first page a list of problems—that is, the areas where results fall short of expectations. Such information is needed, of course, to help prevent deterioration of performance. But it also suppresses the recognition of new opportunities. The first acknowledgment of a possible opportunity usually applies to an area in which a company does better than budgeted. Thus genuinely entrepreneurial businesses have two “first pages”—a problem page and an opportunity page—and managers spend equal time on both.

Next Chapter...

 
 

Oleh Dr. Lala M. Kolopaking 

(Ketua Komisi Teknis Sosial Humaniora DRN 2012-2014)

ABSTRACT

The understanding of technology is not only discover and develop “Science”, but also develops a political thought, policy formulation, and strengthening community participation to encourage community development. That perspective allows research and technology to be used as tool to achieve food sovereignty embodying the spirit of mutual cooperation that reliant and sustain among villages’ community.

Keywords:    participation technology, rural developmenttechnology politics, foodsovereignty, people centered development.